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Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan News How to dial to Kyrgyzstan? - Find Mobile Phones in Kyrgyzstan - Mobile Codes How to call to Kyrgyzstan? - Dialling Codes of Kyrgyzstan - Dial Code of Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan Codes Area Codes in Kyrgyzstan? City Codes of Kyrgyzstan. - Prefix of Kyrgyzstan. - How to dial to the cities in Kyrgyzstan? List of City Dial Codes of Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan Phone Services. Find phones in the cities in Kyrgyzstan. Phone in Kyrgyzstan - Kyrgyzstan Phone Numbers Kyrgyzstan Reverse Lookup. - Where can I find people in Kyrgyzstan? Use the white pages section to find phone numbers, address, names. Locate people in Kyrgyzstan. Search in Kyrgyzstan. Search phone numbers in Kyrgyzstan . Find telephone numbers in the phone guides of Kyrgyzstan. Yellow pages in Kyrgyzstan Yellow pages of Kyrgyzstan. Locate in Kyrgyzstan Business Directory. - Where to search business in Kyrgyzstan? The list of yellow pages in Kyrgyzstan can be used to find more information to locate for business and other professional services. Phone Numbers, Address and more. List with telephone numbers search services to find phone information about people or business. White pages in Kyrgyzstan White pages of Kyrgyzstan. People Find. Where to find people in Kyrgyzstan? How can I find people in Kyrgyzstan? - How can I find people in Kyrgyzstan? Use the list of telephones services to search phone numbers in Kyrgyzstan. : Where to search phones in Kyrgyzstan? - Use the list of mobile services to locate the phone operator and special dial codes for Kyrgyzstan. Maps of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan - - .:Kyrgyzstan - Asia Telephones - Where can I find people and Phone Numbers in Kyrgyzstan. Where to Search City Codes?. How to call to Mobile Phones? - International Dial Codes in Kyrgyzstan, Asia. Free Directory with yellow pages and white pages. How to dial to Kyrgyzstan? .:Kyrgyzstan - Asia Telephones Information - Where can I find people and Phone Numbers in Kyrgyzstan? Use our sections with a free Directory with yellow pages and white pages. Where to Search City Codes?. Use the area codes organized by country and city to find additional information for this asian country. How to dial to Kyrgyzstan? Use the dial codes in the . and International Dial Codes in Kyrgyzstan, Asia. How to call to Mobile Phones? - Find phone codes and mobile operators in your city. Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz Republic - Кыргыз Республикасы
Kırgız Respublikası
Кыргызская Республика
Kyrgyzskaya Respublika / / Flag - Coat of arms Anthem:National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic / Capital
(and largest city) - Bishkek
42°52′N - 74°36′E -  /  - 42.867°N 74.6°E -  / 42.867;74.6 - Official language(s) - Kyrgyz (State)
Russian (Official) - 1 ] - - Ethnic groups - 68.9% Kyrgyz
14.4% Uzbek
9.1% Russian
7.6% others Demonym - Kyrgyz
Kyrgyzstani - 2 ] - - Government - Provisional government under a Presidential system President (acting) - Roza Otunbayeva Prime Minister - Vacant Independence - from the Soviet Union Established - 14 October 1924 Kirghiz SSR - 5 December 1936 Declared - 31 August 1991 Completed - 25 December 1991 Area Total - 199,900 km (86th)
77,181 sq mi Water (%) - 3.6 Population 2009 estimate - 5,482,000 - 3 ] - - (110th 1999 census - 4,896,100 Density - 27.4/km (176th)
71/sq mi GDP (PPP) - 2009 estimate Total - $12.101 billion - 4 ] - Per capita - $2,253 - 4 ] - GDP (nominal) - 2009 estimate Total - $4.570 billion - 4 ] - Per capita - $851 - 4 ] - Gini (2003) - 30.3 ( medium - HDI (2007) - - 0.710 - 5 ] - - ( medium - ) (120th Currency - Som (KGS Time zone - KGT (UTC+6 Drives on the - right Internet TLD - .kg Calling code - 996 Kyrgyzstan ( English pronunciation:/ - ˈ - - k - - ɜr - - ɡ - - ɪ - - s - - t - - ɑː - - n - - / - KUR -gi-stahn - ;Kyrgyz:Кыргызстан - qɯrʁɯzstɑ́n - ;Russian:Кыргызстан - kɨrɡɨsˈtan - ), officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the six independent Turkic states. Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. The ethnonym "Kyrgyz", after which the country is named, is thought to mean "unconquerable" or "undefeatable", presumably referring to the epic hero Manas who, as legend has it, unified undefeated forty tribes against the Khitans. The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan symbolizes the forty tribes of Manas. - 6 ] - - It might also refer to "red", the colour of the "south country" of the original Turkic nations. 1 - History - 1.1 - Oldest mentions of the Kyrgyz - 1.2 - Early history - 1.3 - Soviet era - 1.4 - Independence - 1.5 - 2010 riots - 1.5.1 - April riots - 1.5.2 - June riots - 2 - Politics - 3 - Provinces and districts - 4 - Geography - 4.1 - Climate - 4.2 - Enclaves and exclaves - 5 - Economy - 6 - Demographics - 7 - Languages - 8 - Culture - 8.1 - Traditions - 8.2 - Religion - 8.3 - Flag - 8.4 - Education - 8.5 - Horse riding - 8.6 - Tourism - 9 - Transport - 9.1 - Airports - 9.2 - Banned airline status - 9.3 - Railways - 9.3.1 - Rail links with adjacent countries - 9.4 - Highways - 9.5 - Waterways - 9.6 - Ports and harbours - 10 - See also - 11 - Further reading - 12 - References - 13 - - History History of Kyrgyzstan - Oldest mentions of the Kyrgyz The earliest notable residents of what is now Kyrgyzstan were warrior tribes of Saka (also known as Scythians), from about the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD. - 7 ] - - The Sakan speakers were gradually conquered and acculturated by the Turkic expansion to Central Asia beginning in the 4th century. The only known remnants of the Sakan language come from Xinjiang, China, but the language there is widely divergent from the rest of Iranian and accordingly is called eastern or northeastern Iranian. The original meaning of the word Kyrgyz has several interpretations. One variant alleges that "kyrgyz" originally meant "red". This colour also marked the "south country" of original Turkic nations. Another variant is from the old Karakalpak epos, where the term "kyrk kyz" (meaning "forty girls") is mentioned, which would name the whole nation. There are also a couple of other, less likely speculations. It is not possible to unambiguously state the oldest mention of Kyrgyz ethnicity. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, gradually there appeared an interest in the history of independent Kyrgyzstan, stemming from the search for new roots and identity. This is the same phenomenon that occurred in Europe in the 19th century, during which there was a revival of nationality, and the desire to prove to the world the exceptionality of each nation through various ways, e.g. by its very long history. Some argue that the first written mention of the Kyrgyz was in 569 A.D., when Zemarkh, the envoy of Byzantine emperor Justinian II, received a gift – a Kyrgyz slave. / / Kyrgyzstan is one of the six independent Turkic States as of 2010. Others believe that the Kyrgyz are mentioned some centuries earlier in the Chinese chronicles, particularly in 201 BC under the name Gegun, which is a Mongolian term, and has the singular form "Kyrkun". According to historians tasked to "scientifically" support the ancestry of the Kyrgyz nation, there are obvious roots of Kyrgyz statehood at the end of the 3rd century BC, just over 2,200 years ago. Since that time, the Kyrgyz statehood came through many periods, from the long-lasting “Yenisei” period, to the period of the mighty empire, until it moved into the Ala-Too period. - 11 ] - - For some time, first historical mention of the Kyrgyz was taken to be the year 201 BCE during the mention of Sima Qian in the "Historical Records" (Shiji):Later, when Maodun conquered the Chunju, Cujshe, Dinli, Gegun and Sinli lands in the North, all important people of Siunn acknowledged him and gave him the epithet "the Wise". Later, the year 201 BC was regarded not as the first mention of the Kyrgyz, but as the first year of Kyrgyz statehood, the 2,200th anniversary of which was announced in 2003 by a presidential decree dated 11 July 2002. - 11 ] - - - Early history / / Nestorian tombstone with inscriptions in Uyghur, found in Issyk Kul, dated 1312 In the 8th century Arab invaders conquered Central Asia, including what is now Kyrgyzstan, and introduced Islam. The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khanate in 840 A.D. Then the Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century, however, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz were conquered by Genghis Khan in 1207. Chinese and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries AD describe the early Kyrgyz as red-haired with white sk - blue eyes, features that were interpreted as suggestive of Slavic origins. - 14 ] - - - 15 ] - - The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian population is confirmed on the other hand by the recent genetic studies. - 16 ] - - Because of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples that now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they speak closely related languages. - 17 ] - - The genetic admixture of the Uzbeks clusters somewhere between the Mongols and the Iranian peoples. - 18 ] - - Lake Issyk Kul was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for travelers from the Far East to Europe. Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death that plagued Europe and Asia during the early and mid-14th century. - 19 ] - - Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongol Oirats, in the mid-18th century by the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. - 20 ] - - In the late nineteenth century, the majority part of what is today Kyrgyzstan was ceded to Russia through two treaties between China (then Qing Dynasty) and Russia. The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirgizia", was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against Tsarist authority, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to move to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz later to migrate to China. - 21 ] - - Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split between neighbouring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better;this might mean better rains for pasture or better government during oppression. - Soviet era / / Bishkek / / Displays in the former Lenin Museum (now part of the National Museum) celebrated Kyrgyzstan's membership in the Soviet Union Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR (the term Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz). On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a full republic of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational and social life. Literacy was greatly improved, and a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development also was notable. Many aspects of Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the suppression of nationalist activity under Stalin, and, therefore, tensions with the all-Union authorities were constant. The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan , by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function. In 1989 protests flared up against the discriminatory policy of the Soviet government directed at pushing ethnic Kyrgyz inhabitants out of major cities, which could then be occupied by new settlers from Russia and the other Soviet republics (According to the last Soviet census in 1989, ethnic Kyrgyz made up some 22% of the residents of Frunze (Bishkek), while more than 60% were Russians, Ukrainians, and people from other Slavic nations. Kyrgyzstan was the most Russified republic in the Soviet Union, according to the census, as more than 36 percent of all Kyrgyz citizens said Russian was their first language). - 22 ] - - In June 1990, ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in the Osh Oblast, where Uzbeks form a majority of the population. Violent confrontations ensued, and a state of emergency and curfew were introduced. - 23 ] - - The early 1990s brought considerable change to Kyrgyzstan. By then, the Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament. In an upset victory, Askar Akayev, the liberal President of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, was elected to the presidency in October 1990. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its prerevolutionary name of Bishkek. Despite these aesthetic moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union in March 1991, 88.7% of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union as a "renewed federation." On 19 August 1991, when the State Emergency Committee assumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the Soviet Union on 31 August 1991. - Independence In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95% of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics that same month, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community. Finally, on 21 December 1991, Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new Commonwealth of Independent States. Kyrgyzstan gained full independence a few days later on 25 December 1991. The following day, 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the UN and the OSCE. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union ethnic clashes have been infrequent but, sometimes serious. - 24 ] - - The "Tulip Revolution", after the parliamentary elections in March 2005, forced President Akayev's resignation on 4 April 2005. Opposition leaders formed a coalition, and a new government was formed under President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Feliks Kulov. The nation's capital was also looted during the protests. Political stability appeared to be elusive, however, as various groups and factions allegedly linked to organized crime are jockeyed for power. Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006 shortly after winning his murdered brother's seat in a by-election. All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal business ventures.

/ / Ethnolinguistic map of Central Asia Current concernswhen? ] in Kyrgyzstan include privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of Western influence, inter-ethnic relations and terrorism. On 6 April 2010, civil unrest broke out in the town of Talas, spreading to the capital Bishkek by the following day. Protesters attacked President Kurmanbek Bakiyev's offices, as well as state-run radio and television stations. As a result, Bakiyev declared a state of emergency. Reports say that at least 80 people died as a result of clashes with police. - 25 ] - - A transition government, led by former foreign minister Roza Otunbayeva, by 8 April 2010 had taken control of state media and government facilities in the capital, but Bakiyev had not resigned from office. - 26 ] - - - 27 ] - - President Kurmanbek Bakiyev returned to his home in Jalal-Abad and stated his terms of resignation at a 13 April 2010 press conference. - 28 ] - - On 15 April 2010, Bakiyev left the country and flew to neighboring Kazakhstan, along with his wife and two children. The country's provisional leaders announced that Bakiyev signed a formal letter of resignation prior to his departure. - 29 ] - - - 2010 riots - April riots 2010 Kyrgyzstani riots On 6 April 2010, a demonstration in Talas by opposition leaders protested against government corruption and increased living expenses. The protests turned violent and spread nationwide. There were conflicting reports that Interior Minister Moldomusa Kongatiyev had been killed. On 7 April 2010, Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev imposed a state of emergency. Police and special services arrested many opposition leaders. In response protesters took control of the internal security headquarters (former KGB headquarters) and a state television channel in the capital, Bishkek. ] Reports by Kyrgyzstan government officials indicated that at least 75 people were killed and 458 hospitalized in bloody clashes with police in the capital. - 30 ] - - Prime Minister Daniar Usenov accused Russia of supporting the protests;this accusation was denied by Russian Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin. Opposition members also called for the closing of the US controlled Manas Air Base. On 15 April 2010, Bakiyev left the country and flew to neighboring Kazakhstan, along with his wife and two children. The country's provisional leaders announced that Bakiyev signed a formal letter of resignation prior to his departure. - 29 ] - - Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev ordered measures to ensure the safety of Russian nationals and tighten security around Russian sites in Kyrgyzstan to protect them against possible attacks. - June riots 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots Clashes occurred between the two main ethnic groups—the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz—in Osh, the second largest city in the country, on 11 June 2010. A number of shops were set afire. The cause of the clashes was not immediately clear but the interim government declared a state of emergency and troops were deployed to control the situation. The clashes incited fears that the country could be heading towards a civil war. - 33 ] - - Finding it difficult to control the situation, Roza Otunbayeva, the interim leader, sent a letter to the Russian president, Dimitry Medvedev, asking him to send Russian troops to help the country control the situation. Medvedev's spokeswoman, Natalya Timakova, said in a reply to the letter, "It is an internal conflict and for now Russia does not see the conditions for taking part in its resolution". The clashes caused a shortage of food and other essential commodities with more than 200 killed and 1,685 people hurt as of 12 June 2010. The Russian government, however, said it would be sending humanitarian aid to the troubled nation. - 34 ] - - According to local sources, there was a clash between two local gangs and it did not take long for the violence to spread to the rest of the city. There were also reports that the armed forces supported ethnic Kyrgyz gangs entering the city, but the government denied the allegations. - 35 ] - - Ethnic fighting continued into a third day as armed groups, mainly Kyrgyz, continued to threaten local Uzbeks. By 13 June 2010 the unrest had claimed about 100 lives, while the number injured had increased to over 1,000. The riots spread to neighbouring areas, and the government declared a state of emergency in the entire southern Jalal-Abad region. To control the situation, the interim government gave special shoot-to-kill powers to the security forces. The Russian government decided to send a battalion to the country to protect Russian facilities. - 36 ] - - The interim president, Roza Otunbayeva, accused the family of ousted president Kurmanbek Bakiyev of "instigating the riots". - 37 ] - - AFP reported "a veil of smoke covering the whole city". Authorities in neighbouring Uzbekistan said at least 30,000 Uzbeks had crossed the border to escape the riots. - 36 ] - - Osh became relatively calm on the Mondaywhen? ] but Jalal-Abad witnessed sporadic incidents of arson. The interim government accepted that the security situation was worsening nearing Jalal-Abad.clarification needed ] The entire region was still under a state of emergency as Uzbeks were reluctant to leave their houses for fear of attacks by the mobs. The United Nations decided to send an envoy to assess the situation. - 38 ] - - Temir Sariyev, deputy chief of the interim government, said there were local clashes and it wasn’t possible [for the government] to fully control the situation. He added that there were not sufficient security forces to contain the violence. Media agencies reported on 14 June 2010 that the Russian government was considering a request by the Kyrgyz government. An emergency meeting of Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) was held on Mondaywhen? ] to discuss the role it could play in helping to end the violence. The deputy head of Uzbekistan's emergency services, Pizza Ibragimov, confirmed the presence of more than 60,000 Uzbek refugees in Andijan Province. - 38 ] - - Ethnic violence waned, according to the Kyrgyz government, by 15 June 2010 and Kyrgyz president Roza Otunbayeva held a news conference on Tuesdaywhen? ] and declared that there was no need for Russia to send in troops to quell the violence. There were at least 170 people left dead by Tuesdaywhen? ] but Pascale Meige Wagner of the International Committee of the Red Cross said the [official] death toll was an underestimate. The UN High Commissioner told reporters in Geneva that evidence suggested that the violence seemed to have been staged up. The United Nations called for a “humanitarian corridor” to be set up to help the people affected by the riots and described the situation as a “tinder-box”. There were fears that a referendum, which would pave the way for parliamentary style elections in October 2010, would be delayed but the Kyrgyz president calmed such fears by declaring that the referendum would be held as scheduled. - 39 ] - - There were no reports of heavy fighting between the Kyrgyz and the Uzbeks on 16 June 2010 and UN airplanes with tents and other emergency aid started arriving in neighbouring Uzbekistan. Russian government cargo airplanes carrying food and blankets also landed in Bishkek. According to the World Food Programme, it had enough food in Kyrgyzstan to feed 87,000 people for two months. - 40 ] - - The clashes left some 300,000 people internally displaced and Uzbek leaders wanted the UN peacekeeping force to intervene because they didn’t trust the Kyrgyz forces any longer. ] Another 100,000 refugees crossed the border into Uzbekistan. - 41 ] - - Ethnic Uzbeks threatened to blow up an oil depot in Osh if they failed to get guarantees of protection. The United Nations said it believed that the attacks were "orchestrated, targeted and well-planned". Kyrgyz officials told the media that a person suspected to be behind the violence in Jalal-Abad had been detained. - 40 ] - - - Politics Politics of Kyrgyzstan The 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic republic. The executive branch includes a president and prime minister. The parliament currently is unicameral. The judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court, a Constitutional Court, local courts and a Chief Prosecutor. / / Former president Kurmanbek Bakiyev In March 2002, in the southern district of Aksy, five people protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, sparking nationwide protests. President Askar Akayev initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil and social representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities. The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and the Constitutional Court. Parliamentary elections for a new, 75-seat unicameral legislature were held on 27 February and 13 March 2005, but were widely viewed as corrupt. The subsequent protests led to a bloodless coup on 24 March 2005, after which Akayev fled the country and was replaced by acting president Kurmanbek Bakiyev (see:Tulip Revolution). On 10 July 2005, acting president Bakiyev won the presidential election in a landslide, with 88.9% of the vote, and was inaugurated on 14 August. However, initial public support for the new administration substantially declined in subsequent months as a result of its apparent inability to solve the corruption problems with plagued the country since its independence from the Soviet Union, along with the murders of several members of parliament. Large-scale protests against president Bakiyev took place in Bishkek in April and November 2006, with opposition leaders accusing the president of failing to live up to his election promises to reform the country's constitution and transfer many of his presidential powers to parliament. - 42 ] - - Kyrgyzstan is also a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), a league of 56 participating states committed to peace, transparency, and the protection of human rights in Eurasia. As an OSCE participating State, Kyrgyzstan’s international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission. In December 2008, the state-owned broadcaster UTRK announced that it would require prior submission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty programmes, which UTRK are required to retransmit according to a 2005 agreement. UTRK had stopped retransmitting RFE/RL programming on October 2008, a week after it failed to broadcast an RFE/RL programme called 'Inconvenient Questions' which covered the October elections, claiming to have lost the missing material. President Bakiyev had criticised this programme in September 2008, while UTRK told RFE/RL that its programming was too negative. Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Kyrgyzstan 111th equal out of 173 countries on its Press Freedom Index, strongly criticised the decision. On 3 February 2009, President Kurmanbek Bakiyev announced the imminent closure of the Manas Air Base, the only US military base remaining in Central Asia. - 44 ] - - The closure was approved by Parliament on 19 February 2009 by 78–1 for the government-backed bill. - 45 ] - - However, after much behind-the-scenes negotiation between Kyrgyz, Russian and American diplomats, the decision was reversed in June 2009. The Americans were allowed to remain under a new contract, whereby rent would increase from $17.4 million to $60 million annually. - 46 ] - - Kyrgyzstan is among the twenty countries in the world with the highest perceived level of corruption:the 2008 Corruption Perception Index for Kyrgyzstan is 1.8 on a scale of 0 (most corrupt) to 10 (least corrupt). - 47 ] - - - Provinces and districts Provinces of Kyrgyzstan and Raions of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven provinces (sing. oblast (область), pl. oblasttar (областтар)) administered by appointed governors. The capital, Bishkek, and the second large city Osh are administratively independent cities (shaar ) with a status equal to a province.

/ / Provinces of Kyrgyzstan The provinces, and independent cities, are as follows:

    City of Bishkek Batken Chuy Jalal-Abad Naryn Osh Talas Issyk-Kul City of Osh Each province comprises a number of districts (raions ), administered by government-appointed officials (akim ). Rural communities (ayıl ökmötü ), consisting of up to 20 small settlements, have their own elected mayors and councils. - Geography / / Map of Kyrgyzstan / / Tian Shan mountain range in Kyrgyzstan. / / Orchard near in Issyk Kul Province. Geography of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The mountainous region of the Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country (Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerland of Central Asia", as a result), - 48 ] - - with the remainder made up of valleys and basins. Lake Issyk-Kul in the north-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 m (24,406 ft), is the highest point and is considered by geologists (though not mountaineersclarification needed ]) to be the northernmost peak over 7,000 m (22,966 ft) in the world. Heavy snowfall in winter leads to spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity. Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and rare earth metals. Due to the country's predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley. Bishkek in the north is the capital and largest city, with approximately 900,000 inhabitants (as of 2005). The second city is the ancient town of Osh, located in the Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan. The principal river is the Kara Darya, which flows west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in Uzbekistan it meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Naryn. The confluence forms the Syr Darya, which originally flowed into the Aral Sea. As of 2010