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Oman - Oman News How to dial to Oman? - Find Mobile Phones in Oman - Mobile Codes How to call to Oman? - Dialling Codes of Oman - Dial Code of Oman. Oman Codes Area Codes in Oman? City Codes of Oman. - Prefix of Oman. - How to dial to the cities in Oman? List of City Dial Codes of Oman. Oman Phone Services. Find phones in the cities in Oman. Phone in Oman - Oman Phone Numbers Oman Reverse Lookup. - Where can I find people in Oman? Use the white pages section to find phone numbers, address, names. Locate people in Oman. Search in Oman. Search phone numbers in Oman . Find telephone numbers in the phone guides of Oman. Yellow pages in Oman Yellow pages of Oman. Locate in Oman Business Directory. - Where to search business in Oman? The list of yellow pages in Oman can be used to find more information to locate for business and other professional services. Phone Numbers, Address and more. List with telephone numbers search services to find phone information about people or business. White pages in Oman White pages of Oman. People Find. Where to find people in Oman? How can I find people in Oman? - How can I find people in Oman? Use the list of telephones services to search phone numbers in Oman. : Where to search phones in Oman? - Use the list of mobile services to locate the phone operator and special dial codes for Oman. Maps of Oman Oman - - .:Oman - Asia Telephones - Where can I find people and Phone Numbers in Oman. Where to Search City Codes?. How to call to Mobile Phones? - International Dial Codes in Oman, Asia. Free Directory with yellow pages and white pages. How to dial to Oman? .:Oman - Asia Telephones Information - Where can I find people and Phone Numbers in Oman? Use our sections with a free Directory with yellow pages and white pages. Where to Search City Codes?. Use the area codes organized by country and city to find additional information for this asian country. How to dial to Oman? Use the dial codes in the phone directory. International Dial Codes in Oman, Asia. How to call to Mobile Phones? - Find phone codes and mobile operators in your city. Oman Sultanate of Oman - سلطنة عمان
Salṭanat ʻUmān / / Flag - National Emblem Anthem:Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani / Capital
(and largest city) - Muscat
23°36′N - 58°33′E -  /  - 23.6°N 58.55°E -  / 23.6;58.55 - - Official language(s) - Arabic Demonym - Omani Government - Islamicabsolute monarchy Sultan - Qaboos bin Said Al Said Chancellor - Fahad bin Mahmood Al Said Establishment Imamate established - 1 ] - - 751 Constitution - 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom - 1970 Area Total - 309,550 km (70th)
119,498 sq mi Water (%) - negligible Population 2009 estimate - 2,845,000 - 2 ] - - (139th 2003 census - 2,341,000 Density - 9.2/km (219th)
23.8/sq mi GDP (PPP) - 2009 estimate Total - $74.431 billion - 3 ] - Per capita - $25,109 - 3 ] - GDP (nominal) - 2009 estimate Total - $53.395 billion - 3 ] - Per capita - $18,013 - 3 ] - HDI (2007) - - 0.846 - 4 ] - - (high - ) (56th Currency - Rial (OMR Time zone - (UTC+4) - Summer (DST) - (UTC+4 Drives on the - right Internet TLD - .om Calling code - 968 - Population estimate includes 693,000 non-nationals. Oman (pronounced /oʊˈmɑːn/ - oh- MAHN - ;Arabic:عمان - ‎ ʻUmān - ), officially the Sultanate of Oman (Arabic:سلطنة عمان - ‎ Salṭanat ʻUmān - ), is an Arabcountry in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It borders the United Arab Emirates on the northwest, Saudi Arabia on the west and Yemen on the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the south and east and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The country also contains Madha, an exclave enclosed by the United Arab Emirates, and Musandam, an exclave also separated by Emirati territory. ] - History - History of Oman - Stone Age Wattayah, located in the governorate of Muscat, is the oldest known human settlement in the area and dates back to the Stone Age, making it around 5,000 years old. ] Archaeological remains have been discovered here from the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. Findings have consisted of stone implements, animal bones, shells and fire hearths. The latter date back to 7615 BCE and are the oldest signs of human settlement in the area. Other discoveries include hand-moulded pottery bearing distinguishing pre-Bronze Age marks, heavy flint implements, pointed tools and scrapers. On a mountain rock-face in the same district, animal drawings have been discovered. Similar drawings have also been found in the Wadi Sahtan and Wadi Bani Kharus areas of Rustaq. These drawings consist of human figures carrying weapons and being confronted by wild animals. Siwan in Haima is another Stone Age location and some of the archaeological finds have included arrowheads, knives, chisels and circular stones which may have been used to throw at animals. - Oman before Islam - / / Wadi Shab, Oman, 2004 Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Majan, a name thought to refer to Oman’s ancient copper mines. Mazoon is derived from the word muzn, which means heavy clouds which carry abundant water. The present-day name of the country, Oman, is believed to originate from the Arab tribes who migrated to its territory from the Uman region of Yemen. Many tribes settled in Oman making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding and many present day Omani families are able to trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia. From the 6th century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Oman was controlled and/or influenced by three Persian dynasties, the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids. Achaemenids in the 6th century BC controlled and influenced the Oman peninsula. This was most likely exerted from a coastal center such as Sohar. By about 250 BC the Parthiandynasty brought the Persian Gulf under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman. Because they needed to control the Persian Gulf trade route, the Parthians established garrisons in Oman. In the 3rd century AD the Sasanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area until the rise of Islam four centuries later. - 5 ] - - - The arrival of Islam The Omanis were among the first people to embrace Islam. ] The conversion of the Omanis is usually ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, who was sent by the prophet Muhammad around 630 AD to invite Jaifar and ‘Abd, the joint rulers of Oman at that time, to accept the faith, in which he eventually succeeded. In accepting Islam, Oman became an Ibadhi state, ruled by an elected leader, the Imam. During the early years of the Islamic mission Oman played a major role in the Wars of Apostasy that occurred after the death of Muhammad and also took part in the great Islamic conquests by land and sea in Iraq, Persia and beyond. However, its most prominent role in this respect was through its extensive trading and seafaring activities in East Africa, particularly during the 19th century, when it propagated Islam in many of East Africa’s coastal regions, and certain areas of Central Africa. Omanis also carried the message of Islam with them to China and the Asian ports. Oman was ruled by Umayyads between 661-750, Abbasids between 750-931, 932-933 and 934-967, Qarmatians between 931-932 and between 933-934, Buyids between 967-1053, Seljuks of Kirman between 1053-1154. - The Portuguese settlement The Portuguese occupied Muscat for a 140-year period 1508–1648, arriving a decade after Vasco da Gama discovered the seaway to India. In need of an outpost to protect their sea lanes, the Europeans built up and fortified the city, where remnants of their colonial architectural style still remain. Rebellious tribes drove out the Portuguese, but were pushed out themselves about a century later 1741 by the leader of a Yemeni tribe leading a massive army from various other tribes, who began the current line of ruling sultans. A brief Persian invasion a few years later was the final time Oman would be ruled by a foreign power. Oman has been self governing ever since. - Oman and Gwadar In 1783, Oman’s Saiad Sultan took refuge in ZIK from where he went and sought asylum from Shah Nasir of Kalat in India, who doled him Gwadar out for sustenance until he usurped the Sultanate of Muscat in 1797 from his brother Saiad Said. From 1863 to 1879 Gwadar was the headquarters of a British Assistant Political Agent. Gwadar was a fortnightly port of call for the British India Steamship Navigation Company’s steamers and contained a combined Post &Telegraph Office. Sultan was the sovereign of Gwadar until 1955 when negotiations were held during the period of Ghulam Mohammad. A British adjudicator with Ch. Mohammad Ali representing Pakistani side (as Pakistan had now been created out of India), decided that Pakistan shall pay Rs. 55 crore, which were paid. Sultan Qaboos wanted that the same amount be returned to Pakistan for getting Gwadar back. The Agreement had two important clauses:(1) All Balochistan would form cachment for Omani forces. Resultantly, Balochees constituted a major part of Omani forces, and (2) Resources of Gwadar would be further developed. ] In 1955, Makran acceded to Pakistan and was made a district - Gwadar then, was not included in Makran. In 1958, Gwadar and its surrounding areas were reverted by Maskat to Pakistan. It was given the status of a Tahsil of Makran district. On July 1, 1977, Makran District was upgraded into a division and was divided into three districts of Turbat (now Kech since 1994-95), Panjgur and Gwadar. ] Gwadar became part of the sultanate of Muscat and Oman in 1797, and it was not until 1958 that the town and adjoining hinterland were given up by Oman to Pakistan. - Oman and East African Empire - / / The Sultan's Palace buildings in Zanzibar which was once Oman's capital and residence of its Sultans. In the 1690s Saif bin Sultan, the imam of Oman, pressed down the East Africancoast. A major obstacle was Fort Jesus, housing the garrison of a Portuguese settlement at Mombasa. After a two-year siege, it fell to Saif in 1698. Thereafter the Omanis easily ejected the Portuguese from Zanzibar and from all other coastal regions north of Mozambique. Zanzibar was a valuable property as the main slave market of the east African coast, and became an increasingly important part of the Omani empire, a fact reflected by the decision of the greatest 19th century sultan of Oman, Sa'id ibn Sultan, to make it from 1837 his main place of residence. Sa'id built impressive palaces and gardens in Zanzibar. Rivalry between his two sons was resolved, with the help of forceful British diplomacy, when one of them, Majid, succeeded to Zanzibar and to the many regions claimed by the family on the East Africancoast. The other, Thuwaini, inherited Muscat and Oman. - Dhofar rebellion - Dhofar Rebellion The Dhofar Rebellion was launched in the province of Dhofar against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman and Britain from 1962 to 1975. As the radical-leaning rebellion threatened to overthrow the Sultan's rule in Dhofar and produced disorder in other parts of Oman, Sultan Said bin Taimur was deposed by his son Qaboos bin Said, who introduced major social reforms to deprive the rebellion of popular support and modernised the state's administration. The rebellion ended with the intervention of Iranian Imperial ground forces and major offensives by the expanded Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces. - Politics - / / The Sultan's Al Alam Palace in Muscat Politics of Oman Chief of state and government is the hereditary sultān, Qaboos bin Said Al Said who appoints a cabinet called the "Diwans" to assist him. In the early 1990s, the sultan instituted an elected advisory council, the Majlis ash-Shura , though few Omanis were eligible to vote. Universal suffrage for those over 21 was instituted on 4 October 2003. Over 190,000 people (74% of those registered) voted to elect the 84 seats. - 6 ] - - Two women were elected to seats. The country today has three women ministers Rawiyah bint Saud al Busaidiyah - Minister of Higher Education, Sharifa bint Khalfan al Yahya'eyah - Minister of Social Development and Rajiha bint Abdulamir bin Ali al Lawati - Minister of Tourism. There are no legal political parties nor, at present, any active opposition movement. As more and more young Omanis return from education abroad, it seems likely that the traditional, tribal-based political system will have to be adjusted. - 7 ] - - A State Consultative Council, established in 1981, consisted of 55 appointed representatives of government, the private sector, and regional interests. - Military - Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces Oman's armed forces, including Royal Household troops foreign personnel numbered 41,700 in 2002. The army had 25,000 personnel equipped with over 100 main battle tanks and 37 Scorpion tanks. The air force of 4,100 operates 40 combat aircraft. The navy numbers 4,200 with 13 patrol and coastal combatants. Paramilitary includes the Tribal Home Guard (Firqats) of 4,000 organized in small tribal teams, a police coast guard of 400, and a small police air wing. The elite Royal Household brigade, naval unit, and air unit number 6,400, including 2 special forces regiments. ] In 2005 Oman spent 11.4% of GDP on military expenditures. (See:List of countries by military expenditures) According to Times Online , Oman is home to the world's only camel-backed bagpipe military band. - Geography / / Coast of Sur, Oman Geography of Oman and Geology of Oman
Geography of Oman
Coastline 2,092 km
Bordering countries Saudi Arabia, UAE and Yemen
A vast gravel desert plain covers most of central Oman, with mountain ranges along the north (Al Hajar Mountains) and southeast coast, where the country's main cities are also located:the capital city Muscat, Sohar and Sur in the north, and Salalah in the south. Oman's climate is hot and dry in the interior and humid along the coast. During past epochs Oman was covered by ocean. Fossilized shells exist in great numbers in areas of the desert away from the modern coastline.
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Desert landscape in Oman
The peninsula of Musandam (Musandem), which has a strategic location on the Strait of Hormuz, is separated from the rest of Oman by the United Arab Emirates and is thus an exclave. The series of small towns known collectively as Dibba are the gateway to the Musandam peninsula on land and the fishing villages of Musandam by sea. Boats may be hired at Khasab for trips into the Musandam peninsula by sea.
Oman has another exclave, inside UAE territory, known as Madha. It is located halfway between the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman. Belonging to Musandam governorate, it covers approximately 75 km (29 sq mi). The boundary was settled in 1969. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Fujairah road, barely 10 m (32.8 ft) away. Within the exclave is a UAE enclave called Nahwa, belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about 8 km (5 mi) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.
- Climate -
Climate of Oman
Annual rainfall in Muscat averages 100 mm (3.9 in), falling mostly in January. Dhofar is subject to the southwest monsoon, and rainfall up to 640 mm (25.2 in) has been recorded in the rainy season from late June to October. ] While the mountain areas receive more plentiful rainfall, some parts of the coast, particularly near the island of Masirah, sometimes receive no rain at all within the course of a year. The climate generally is very hot, with temperatures reaching 54 °C (129.2 °F) in the hot season, from May to September.
Climate data for Oman
Month - Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr - May - Jun - Jul - Aug - Sep - Oct - Nov - Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 81
(27)
79
(26)
84
(29)
93
(34)
102
(39)
104
(40)
100
(38)
97
(36)
97
(36)
95
(35)
86
(30)
81
(27)
91.6
(33.1)
Average low °F (°C) 63
(17)
63
(17)
70
(21)
75
(24)
84
(29)
88
(31)
86
(30)
82
(28)
81
(27)
75
(24)
70
(21)
64
(18)
75.1
(23.9)
Precipitation inches (mm) 0.5
(12.7)
1
(25.4)
0.598
(15.2)
0.701
(17.8)
0.299
(7.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.299
(7.6)
0.5
(12.7)
3.898
(99)
Source:weather.com - 10 ] - - 2009-10-26
- Flora and fauna -
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Nakhal palm tree farms in the Batina Region, Sultanate of Oman
Desert shrub and desert grass, common to southern Arabia, are found. Vegetation is sparse in the interior plateau, which is largely gravel desert. The greater monsoon rainfall in Dhofar and the mountains makes the growth there more luxuriant during summer. Coconut palms grow plentifully in Dhofar and Frankincense grows in the hills. Oleander and varieties of Acacia abound. The Al Hajar Mountains are a distinct ecoregion, the highest points in eastern Arabia with wildlife including the Arabian tahr.
Indigenousmammals include the Leopard, Hyena, Fox, Wolf, and Hare, Oryx and Ibex. Birds include the Vulture, Eagle, Stork, Bustard, Arabian Partridge, Bee Eater, Falcon and Sunbird.
- Environment
Maintaining an adequate supply of water for agricultural and domestic use is Oman's most pressing environmental problem. The nation has limited renewablewater resources, with 94% used in farming and 2% for industrial activity. Drinking water is available throughout the country, either piped or delivered. Both drought and limited rainfall contribute to shortages in the nation's water supply.
The nation's soil has shown increased levels of salinity. Pollution of beaches and other coastal areas by oil tanker traffic through the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman is also a persistent problem.
In 2001, the nation had nine endangered species of mammals and five endangered types of birds. ] Nineteen plant species are also threatened with extinction. Decrees have been passed to protect endangered species, which include the Arabian Leopard, Arabian oryx, mountain gazelle, goitered gazelle, Arabian tahr, green sea turtle, hawksbill turtle and olive ridley turtle. In 2007 Oman's Arabian Oryx Sanctuary became the first site ever deleted from UNESCO's World Heritage list because of the government's decision to reduce the site to 10% of its former size.
- Demographics -
Demographics of Oman
Demographics of Oman
Languages Arabic, English
Religion Islam
Ethnic groups Arab, South Asian and African
Life expectancy 73.13 years
The Ministry of Economy estimates that in mid 2006 the total population was 2.577 million. Of those, 1.844 million were Omanis. The population has grown from 2.018 million in the 1993 census to 2.340 million in the 2003 census.
In Oman, about 50% of the population lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital;about 200,000 live in the Dhofar (southern) region, and about 30,000 live in the remote Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of Hormuz.
Some 600,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom are guest workers from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, India and the Philippines.
- Religion
Around 75% of the population consists of Ibadhi, a form of Islam distinct from the Sunni and Shia denominations. Sunni Muslims constitute around 17% of the total. ImamiShia Muslims and the Zikri form the remaining 8% of the population. - 12 ] - - While the Imami Shia largely originate from Bahrain, Iran and the Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia, Shi'a Muslims form a well-integrated community, concentrated in the capital area and along the northern coast.
The Oman government does not keep statistics on religious affiliation, but most citizens are Muslims. ] Non-Muslim religious communities individually constitute less than 5 percent of the population and include various groups of Hindus, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Baha'is, and Christians. Christian communities are centered in the major urban areas of Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah and include Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and various Protestant congregations. These groups tend to organize along linguistic and ethnic lines. More than fifty different Christian groups, fellowships, and assemblies are active in the Muscat metropolitan area. The majority of non-Muslims are noncitizen immigrant workers from South Asia, although there are small communities of ethnic IndianHindus and Christians with been naturalized.
- Economy -
Economy of Oman
Economy of Oman
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The Central Bank of Oman
Currency Omani Riyal (R$, OMR)
Fiscal year - Calendar year
Central Bank Central Bank of Oman
Stock Market Muscat Stock Market
Omani citizens enjoy good living standards, but the future is uncertain with Oman's limited oil reserves. - 14 ] - - Other sources of income, agriculture, local industries are small in comparison and count for less than 1% of the country's exports. The sales of imported products in markets provides income for people in Oman. Agriculture, often subsistence in its character, produces Dates, Limes, Grains and vegetables. Less than 1% of the country is under cultivation but, in general, food has to be imported. Industries contribute only with 4%, but there are governmental plans to increase this.
Oil production is extracted and processed by Petroleum Development Oman. In recent years, proven oil reserves have been holding approximately steady, although oil production has been decreasing. - 15 ] - - - 16 ] - - Oman has other mineral resources including Copper, Asbestos and Marble, but this is little exploited.
- Oil and gas
Commercial export of oil began in 1967 and since Sultan Qaboos' accession to the throne in 1970, many more oil fields have been found and developed. In June 1999, PDO discovered a new oil field in southern Oman after drilling and testing three wells which demonstrated the commercial viability of the reservoir. This is the most significant find in five years.
Work is continuing on the RO 503.876 million (US$1.3 billion) oil refinery project in Sohar, which was due to go into operation in 2006 with a 116,400 barrels a day refining capacity. In 2004, Oman Oil Refinery was supplied with about 78,200 barrels a day for refining, while PDO began using steam injection technology in several wells to increase their productivity. Oman's future economy is expected to depend on Sohar, which is growing very fast.
Since the slump in oil prices in 1998, Oman has made active plans to diversify its economy and is placing a greater emphasis on other areas of industry, such as tourism and natural gas. Oman's Basic Statute of the State expresses in Article 11 that, "The National Economy is based on justice and the principles of a free economy."
- Mineral resources
Oman's mineral resources include chromite, dolomite, zinc, limestone, gypsum, silicon, copper, gold, cobalt and iron. Several industries have grown up around them as part of the national development process which, in turn, have boosted the minerals sector’s contribution to the nation’s GDP as well as providing jobs for Omanis. Copper has been mined in Oman for thousands of years. ] The mineral sector’s operations include mining and quarrying. Several projects have recently been completed including:an economic feasibility study on silica ore in Wadi Buwa and Abutan in the Wusta Region, which confirmed that there were exploitable reserves of around 28 million tonnes at the two sites;a feasibility study on the production of magnesium metal from dolomite ore;a draft study on processing limestone derivatives;a project to produce geological maps of the Sharqiyah Region ;economic feasibility studies on the exploitation of gold and copper ores in the Ghaizeen area;a study on raw materials in the wilayats of Duqm and Sur for use in the Sultanate’s cement industry;and a study on the construction of a new minerals laboratory in Ghala in the Governorate of Muscat.
- Industry
The industrial sector is a cornerstone of the Sultanate’s long-term (1996–2020) development strategy. Industry is not only one of the main sectors involved in diversifying the sources of national income and reducing dependence on oil;it is also capable of helping to meet Oman’s social development needs and generate greater added value for national resources by processing them into manufactured products.
The Seventh Five-Year Development Plan creates the conditions for an attractive investment climate. Under its strategy for the industrial sector the government also aims to develop the information technology and telecommunications industries. The Knowledge Oasis Muscat complex has been set up and expanded, and Omani companies are developing their technological potential through collaboration with various Japanese and German institutions.
There is also an industrial estate in Sohar - where the Sultanate’s heavy industries are based - as well as other estates in Sur, Salalah, Nizwa and Buraimi. Natural gas is transported to the industrial estates in Sohar and Salalah, helping to promote expansion of those industries that depend on natural gas;the government grants these industries tax exemptions, as an incentive to encourage their expansion and development. By 2020 the industrial sector is expected to contribute 15% to the country’s GDP. ]
- Development plans -
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Muscat
The Omani economy has been radically transformed over a series of development plans beginning with the First Five-year Plan (1976–1980). At Sultan Qaboos's instruction, a vision of Oman's economic future up to the year 2020 was set out at the end of the first phase of the country's development 1970-1995. Vision 2020, outlined the country's economic and social goals over the 25 years of the second phase of the development process (1996–2020).
Oman 2020, held in June 1995, has developed the following aims with regard to securing Oman's future prosperity and growth:
To have economic and financial stability
To reshape the role of the Government in the economy and to broaden private sector participation
To diversify the economic base and sources of national income
To globalize the Omani economy
To upgrade the skills of the Omani workforce and develop human resources
A free-trade agreement with the United States took effect 1 January 2009, eliminating tariff barriers on all consumer and industrial products. It also provides strong protections for foreign businesses investing in Oman. - 17 ] - -
- Tourism -
Tourism in Oman
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Al-Bustan Palace Hotel
Oman is known for its popular tourist attractions. Wadis, deserts, beaches, and mountains are areas which make Oman unique to its neighboring GCC nations (Wadis in particular). With a coastline of 1700 km, Oman offers some of the cleanest, most stunning beaches a visitor could hope to see. Few beaches are private, except some attached to the beach resort hotels, or those adjoining military or official property. Wadis are green, lush oases of palm trees, grasses, and flowering. Some wadis have year-round running water, with deep, cool pools in which it is quite safe to swim if the currents are slow. Falaj (pl. aflaaj) means a system for the distribution of water and is commonly used to describe the irrigation channel system downstream of the water's source.Some aflaaj in Oman were built more than 1,500 years ago, whilst others were built at the beginning of the 20th century. In many cases, the only water has had to be attained by drilling into the ground to a depth of dozens of meters. ]
Numerous forts and castles are included among Oman's cultural landmarks and, together with its towers and city walls, they have historically been used as defensive bastions or look-out points. Forts were often the seats of administrative and judicial authority. There are over 500 forts, castles and towers in Oman which has a coastline of 1,700 km, so they were needed to protect it from potential invaders. The architectural styles vary, being determined by the architects who built them or the periods in which they were built.
The traditional Arabic marketplace is called the souq and these are found in many of the towns throughout the country. One of the oldest preserved souqs in Oman is in Muttrah, on the Corniche. Gold and silver jewellery is found in abundance as well as numerous wooden carvings, ornaments and spices. Muttrah souq is a maze of pathways leading - out of each other. Household goods make up the bulk of the souq, but browsing through some of the smaller shops may result in a lucky find. Today,the Capital area has a number of shopping malls, mainly situated in Qurum, but in recent times, spreading to the Al Khuwair area, which house a variety of shops, ranging from boutiques to chain stores. The largest mall in the country is the Muscat City Centre.
Other popular tourist activities include sand skiing in the desert, scuba diving, rock climbing, trekking, surfing &sailing, cave exploration, bull fighting and camel races. The Muscat Festival is usually held at the beginning of every year. During this event, traditional dances are held, temporary theme parks open, and concerts take place. Another popular event is The Khareef Festival, which is similar to Muscat Festival;however it is held in August in Salalah, Dhofar. During this latter event, mountains are packed as a result of the cool breeze weather during that period of time which rarely occurs in Muscat. ]
- Labour
The estimated workforce was 920,000 in 2002. A large proportion of the population were still engaged in subsistence agriculture or fishing. The skilled local labour force is small, and many of the larger industries depend on foreign workers from Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka — foreign laborers constituted over 80% of the modern-sector workforce in 1996. The largest expat community is from India - 18 ] - - , representing more than half of entire workforce in Oman.
The minimum working age for Omani citizens is 13, but this provision is not enforced against the employment of children in family businesses or on family farms. The minimum working age for expatriate citizens is 21. The minimum wage for non-professional workers was $260 per month in 2002. However, many classes of workers (domestic servants, farmers, government employees) are not required to receive the minimum wage and the government is not consistent in its enforcement of the minimum wage law. The private sector working week is 40 to 45 hours long, while government officials have a 35-hour working week. ]
- Labour unions
Oman Law was amended during February of 2010 to allow the formation of Labor unions. There are now approximately 70 Labour Unions within the Sultanate. The law forbids a strike for any reason. Collective bargaining is not permitted, however there exist labour-management committees in firms with more than 50 workers. These committees are not authorized to discuss conditions of employment, including hours and wages. The Labour Welfare Board provides a venue for grievances. ]
- Inflation
As oil prices have risen to a record high, so has inflation. The government depends mostly on oil revenue, more than on tax returns from companies and other government-owned companies. The government is also Oman's largest employer, so the high interest that government gets increases the prices of food and construction equipment. The government did support the fuel prices so it doesn't increase the inflation and to make the price suitable for people on low wages.
In 2006, government employee salaries were increased by 15%, placing Oman in the category of high-medium income countries. ] and a year after increase employees' were also increased in salaries so, employees with low wages have a higher increase that may go up to 48% and employees who earn more get a lesser increase in their salaries which end at 5%. The minimum wage has been changed from 120 Rial a month to 140 Rials because of high records of inflation driven by high prices of oil. ]
- Transportation -
Transport in Oman
- Education -
Education in Oman
Before 1970, only three formal schools existed in the whole country with less than 1000 students receiving education in them. Since Sultan Qaboos came to power in 1970, the government has given high priority to education to develop a domestic work force, which the government considers a vital factor in the country's economic and social progress. Today there are over 1000 state schools and about 650,000 students. In 1986, Oman's first university, Sultan Qaboos University, opened. Other post secondary institutions include a law school, technical college, banking institute, teachers training college, and health sciences institute. Some 200 scholarships are awarded each year for study abroad.
Pre-university education in Oman has three stages:primary, preparatory, and secondary. Six years of primary schooling are followed by preparatory school. Academic results of the preparatory exams determine the type of secondary education the student will receive.
Nine private colleges exist, providing 2-year post secondary diplomas. Since 1999, the government has embarked on reforms in higher education designed to meet the needs of a growing population, only a small percentage of which are currently admitted to Higher Education Institutions (Ibra College of Technology). Under the reformed system, four public regional universities will be created, and incentives are provided by the government to promote the upgrading of the existing nine private colleges and the creation of other degree-granting private colleges. ]
The adult illiteracy rate was estimated at 28.1% for the year 2000 (males, 19.6%;females, 38.3%). In 1998, there were 411 primary schools with 313,516 students and 12,052 teachers. Student-to-teacher ratio stood at 26 to 1. In secondary schools in 1998, there were 12,436 teachers and 217,246 students. As of 1999, 65% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school, while 59% of those eligible attended secondary school. In the same year, public expenditure on education was estimated at3.9% of GDP. In 1993, there were 252 literacy centers and 176 adult education centers. Three teachers' colleges were functioning as of 1986. The Institute of Agriculture at Nazwa became a full college by 1985. Sultan Qaboos University opened in 1986. In 1998, all higher-level institutions had 1,307 teachers and 16,032 students.
- Science and technology -
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A water oasis in Oman provides a source of drinking water for animals and humans.
Most research conducted in Oman has been done at the behest of the government;agriculture, minerals, water resources, and marine sciences have drawn the most attention. Sultan Qaboos University, founded in 1985, has colleges of science, medicine, engineering, and agriculture. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 13% of college and university enrollments.
The Institute of Health Sciences, under the Ministry of Health, was founded in 1982. Muscat Technical Industrial College, founded in 1984, has departments of computing and mathematics, laboratory science, and electrical, construction, and mechanical engineering. ] The Oman Natural History Museum, founded in 1983, includes the national herbarium and the national shell collection. All of these organizations are located in Muscat.
- Meteorites
The central desert of Oman is an important source of meteorites for scientific analysis. - 19 ] - - Since 1999, search campaigns in Oman have provided about 20% of the world's meteorites. These include rare meteorites from Mars and the Moon. The meteorite accumulations in the gravelly central desert play an important role in increasing knowledge of conditions in the early solar system.
- Health
As of 1999, there were an estimated 1.3 physicians and 2.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people. In 1993, 89% of the population had access to health care services. In 2000, 99% of the population had access to health care services. ].. During the last 3 decades, the Oman health care system has demonstrated and reported great achievements in health care services and preventive and curative medicine. In 2001, Oman was ranked number 8 by the World Health Organization.
- Culture -
Culture of Oman
Islam in Oman, List of traditional games in Oman, Music of Oman, and Cinema of Oman
Although Arabic is Oman's official language, there are native speakers of different dialects, as well as Balochi (the language of the Baloch from western-Pakistan, eastern Iran), and southern Afghanistan or offshoots of Southern Arabian, a Semitic language only distantly related to Arabic, but closely related to Semitic languages in Eritrea and Ethiopia. Swahili and French are also widely spoken in the country due to the historical relations between Oman and Zanzibar the two languages have been linked historically. The dominant indigenous language is a dialect of Arabic and the country has also adopted English as a second language. Almost all signs and writings appear in both Arabic and English. ] A significant number also speak Hindi, due to the influx of Indian migrants during the late 1980s and the 1990s.
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Khanjar knife, traditional dagger of Oman, circa 1924
Oman is famous for its khanjar knives, which are curved daggers worn during holidays as part of ceremonial dress. Today traditional clothing is worn by most Omani men. They wear an ankle-length, collarless robe called a dishdasha that buttons at the neck with a tassel hanging down. Traditionally this tassel would be dipped in perfume. Today the tassel is merely a traditional part of the dishdasha.
Women wear hijabs and abayas. Some women cover their faces and hands, but most do not. ] The abaya is a traditional dress and currently comes in different styles. The Sultan has forbidden the covering of faces in public office. On holidays, such as Eid, the women wear traditional dress, which is often very brightly colored and consists of a mid-calf length tunic over pants.
- Food
The main daily meal is usually eaten at midday, while the evening meal is lighter. Maqbous is a rice dish, tinged yellow with saffron and cooked over spicy red or white meat. Arsia is a festival meal, served during celebrations, which consists of mashed rice flavoured with spices. Another popular festival meal is shuwa, which is meat cooked very slowly (sometimes for up to two days) in an underground clay oven. The meat becomes extremely tender and it is impregnated with spices and herbs before cooking to give it a very distinct taste. Fish is often used in main dishes too, and the kingfish is a popular ingredient. Mashuai is a meal comprising whole spit-roasted kingfish served with lemon rice. The rukhal bread is a thin, round bread originally baked over a fire made from palm leaves. It is eaten at any meal, typically served with Omani honey for breakfast or crumbled over curry for dinner. Chicken, fish and mutton are regularly used in dishes.
Although spices, herbs, onion, garlic and lime are liberally used in traditional Omani cuisine, unlike similar Asian food, it is not hot (spicy). Omani cuisine is also distinct from the indigenous foods of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf and even varies within the Sultanate's different regions. ] There are also significant differences in cuisine between different regions of Oman.
- Sport -
Sport in Oman
Sports of Oman
Popular Sport Football, volleyball, hockey.
National Team Sports - 5
National Clubs 48
Colors Red, White, Green
The government aims to give young people a fully rounded education by providing activities and experience in the sporting, cultural, intellectual, social and scientific spheres, and to excel internationally in these areas and for this reason, in October 2004, the government created a Ministry of Sports Affairs to replace the General Organisation for Youth, Sports and Cultural Affairs.

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Badge of Oman F.A. (Football Association
The 2009 Gulf Cup of Nations, the 19th edition, took place in Muscat, Oman, from 4 January to 17 January 2009 and was won by Oman.
The International Olympic Committee awarded the former GOYSCA its prestigious prize for sporting excellence in recognition of its contributions to youth and sports and its efforts to promote the Olympic spirit and goals.
The Oman Olympic Committee played a major part in organizing the highly successful 2003 Olympic Days, which were of great benefit to the sports associations, clubs and young participants. The Football Association took part, along with the Handball, Basketball, Hockey, Volleyball, Athletics, Swimming, and Tennis Associations. In 2010 Muscat will host the 2010 Asian Beach Games for the first time.
- International Rankings -
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Organization - Survey - Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace - 20 ] - - Global Peace Index - 21 ] - - 21 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme - Human Development Index - 56 out of 182
Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index - 39 out of 180
World Economic Forum - Global Competitiveness Report - 41 out of 133
- See also
MiddleEast blacky.svg - Middle East portal
Outline of Oman
List of cities in Oman
Communications in Oman
Foreign relations of Oman
Human rights in Oman
Index of Oman-related articles
Transport in Oman
Tourism in Oman
Scouting and Guiding in Oman
Theweek
Cyclone Gonu
Al Nuaim
- References -
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Trees in Oman
^http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561099_7/Oman.html#s28 Fourth line down from the top of the history section:"In 751 Ibadi Muslims, a moderate branch of the Kharijites, established an imamate in Oman. Despite interruptions, the Ibadi imamate survived until the mid-20th century.". Archived 2009-11-01.
  • ^Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf -
  • a b c dOman. International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=449&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=69&pr.y=13 -
  • ^History of OMAN. Historyworld.net. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ad54 -
    ^Oman Parliamentary Elections:Shura Council (pdf)dead link ] -
    ^Oman - Migration, Ethnic groups, Languages, Political parties, Local government, International cooperation, Forestry, Insurance. Nationsencyclopedia.com. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Oman.html -
    ^ Krogh, Jan S.. Oman. http://geosite.jankrogh.com/oman.htm - . -
    ^United Arab Emirates. http://geosite.jankrogh.com/nahwa.htm - . -
  • ^Monthly Averages for Muscat, Oman. weather.com . The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/MUXX0003?from=36hr_bottomnav_business -
  • ^Oman. World Factbook . CIA. cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html -
  • ^Department of Statedead link ] -
  • ^The CIA World Factbook:Oman. Central Intelligence Agency. cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html -
  • ^Oman:Energy data. EIA. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Oman/Oil.html -
    ^Chemical &Engineering News, 5 January 2009, "U.S.-Oman pact expands Free Trade", p. 18
    ^http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-news/antony-meets-indian-diaspora-in-omam_100365941.html
    ^ 4th Swiss Geoscience Meeting, Bern 2006. Meteorite accumulation surfaces in Oman:Main results of. Omani-Swiss meteorite search campaigns, 2001-2006. by Beda Hofmann et al.
    ^Institute for Economics and Peace
    ^Vision of Humanity. Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php -
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    Geographic locale -
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    Countries and territories
    Middle East
    Bahrain - - Cyprus - - Egypt - - Gaza Strip - - Iraq - - Iran - - Israel - - Jordan - - Kuwait - - Lebanon - - Northern Cyprus 1 - - Oman - - Qatar - - Saudi Arabia - - Syria - - Turkey - - United Arab Emirates - - West Bank - - Yemen
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    1 Only recognized by Turkey;see Cyprus dispute.
    Countries of Western Asia -
    Armenia - Azerbaijan 1 - Bahrain - Cyprus - Georgia - Iran - Iraq - Israel - Jordan - Kuwait - Lebanon - Oman - Palestinian territories (Gaza Strip and West Bank) - Qatar - Saudi Arabia - Syria - Turkey 1 - United Arab Emirates - - Yemen
    Has part of its territory in Europe.
    Countries of Asia -
    Afghanistan - - Armenia - - Azerbaijan 1 - - Bahrain - - Bangladesh - - Bhutan - - Brunei - - Burma - - Cambodia - - People's Republic of China - - Republic of China (Taiwan) 2 - - Cyprus - - Egypt 3 - - Georgia 1 - - India - - Indonesia 4 - - Iran - - Iraq - - Israel - - Japan - - Jordan - - Kazakhstan 1 - - North Korea - - South Korea - - Kuwait - - Kyrgyzstan - - Laos - - Lebanon - - Malaysia - - Maldives - - Mongolia - - Nepal - - Oman - - Pakistan - - Philippines - - Qatar - - Russia 1 - - Saudi Arabia - - Singapore - - Sri Lanka - - Syria - - Tajikistan - - Thailand - - East Timor (Timor-Leste) 4 - - Turkey 1 - - Turkmenistan - - United Arab Emirates - - Uzbekistan - - Vietnam - - Yemen 3 -


    For dependent and other territories, see Dependent territory.


    Partly or significantly in Europe. The Republic of China (Taiwan) is not officially recognized by the United Nations;see Political status of Taiwan.
    Partly or significantly in Africa. Partly or wholly reckoned in Oceania. -

    Countries bordering the Persian Gulf -
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    International membership -
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    Bahrain - Kuwait - Oman - Qatar - Saudi Arabia - United Arab Emirates
    Flag of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the (Persian) Gulf