|How to dial to Iran? International Dial Codes in Iran, Asia.|
||Map Latitude : 32°N - Longitude : 53°E - 32°N 53°E - 32;53 - - -
||Islamic Republic of Iran -
جمهوری اسلامی ایران |
Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān
- Coat of arms
||Motto :استقلال. آزادی. جمهوری اسلامی |
Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic
|Anthem :National Anthem of Iran - (official) |
Ey Iran - (De facto)
(Persian :Oh Iran
(and largest city)
- Tehran ||Map Latitude : 35°41′N - Longitude : 51°25′E - 35.683°N 51.417°E - 35.683;51.417 -
||People : - Iranian
||Government : - Islamic republic
- Ali Khamenei
||President : - Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
||First Vice President : - Mohammad-Reza Rahimi
||Speaker of the Parliament
- Ali Larijani
- Islamic Consultative Assembly
- 1 ] - -
||Median Empire - 625 BC
||Safavid Empire - 1501
||Islamic Republic declared - 1 April 1979
||Area Total : 1,648,195 km (18th)|
636,372 sq mi)
|Water (%) - 0.7
||Population estimate in 2009 : 74,196,000
- 3 ] - - (18th
||2006 census - 70,495,782 - Density : 45/km (163rd)|
|GDP - Purchasing power parity PPP : estimate in 2009 : Total : $827.858 billion
- 4 ] - - Per capita : $11,172
- 4 ] -
||GDP (nominal) : estimate in 2009 : Total : $330.461 billion
- 4 ] - - Per capita : $4,459
- 4 ] -
||Gini (2008) - 38
- 5 ] - - (medium
||HDI (2007) - ▼ - 0.782 (medium ) (88th
||Currency : - Rial ( ريال ) (IRR)
||Time zone : - IRST - (UTC) +3:30
||Summer (DST) - Iran Daylight Time (IRDT) (UTC) +4:30
||Drives on the - right
||Internet Domain name TLD - .ir
||Calling code + 98
|| - Bookrags
|| - Iranchamber
|| - Statistical Center of Iran. جمعيت و متوسط رشد سالانه (in Persian). http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci/sci/SEL/f02/2.1.html - || - CIA Factbook
||Iran (Persian :ایران - ʔiˈɾɒn - (listen) - ), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran
- 6 ] - - , and formerly known internationally as Persia , is a country in Central Eurasia and Western Asia.
- 7 ] - - The name Iran has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was widely known as Persia . Both Persia and Iran are used interchangeably in cultural contexts;however, Iran is the name used officially in political contexts.
- 10 ] - -
- 11 ] - - The name Iran is a cognate of Aryan , and means "Land of the Aryans".
- 12 ] - -
- 13 ] - -
- 14 ] - -
||The 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km², Iran has a population of over 74 million.
- 15 ] - - It is a country of particular geostrategic significance owing to its location in the Middle East and central Eurasia. Iran is bordered on the north by Armenia,
Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. As Iran is a littoral state of the Caspian Sea, which is an inland sea and condominium,
Kazakhstan and Russia are also Iran's direct neighbors to the north. Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by Iraq and on the northwest by Turkey. Tehran is the capital, the country's largest city and the political, cultural, commercial and industrial center of the nation. Iran is a regional power,
- 16 ] - -
- 17 ] - - and holds an important position in international energy security and world economy as a result of its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.
||Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations.
- 18 ] - -
- 19 ] - -
- 20 ] - - The first Iranian dynasty formed during the Elamite kingdom in 2800 BCE. The Iranian Medes unified Iran into an empire in 625 BCE.
- 1 ] - - They were succeeded by the Iranian Achaemenid Empire, the Hellenic
Seleucid Empire and two subsequent Iranian empires, the Parthians and the Sassanids, before the Muslim conquest in 651 CE. Iranian post-Islamic dynasties and empires expanded the Persian language and culture throughout the Iranian plateau. Early Iranian dynasties which re-asserted Iranian independence included the Tahirids,
Samanids and Buyids.
||The blossoming of Persian literature,
mathematics and art became major elements of Muslim civilization and started with the Saffarids and Samanids. Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty
- —who promoted Twelver
- 21 ] - - as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.
- 22 ] -
- Persia's Constitutional Revolution established the nation's first parliament in 1906, within a constitutional monarchy. Iran officially became an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979, following the Iranian Revolution.
- 23 ] - -
- 24 ] - -
||Iran is a founding member of the UN,
OIC and OPEC. The political system of Iran, based on the 1979 constitution, comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The highest state authority is the Supreme Leader. Shia Islam is the official religion and Persian is the official language.
- 25 ] - -
||1 - Name -
||2 - Geography and climate -
||2.1 - Fauna -
||2.2 - Provinces and cities -
||3 - History -
||3.1 - Pre-Historic era -
||3.2 - Early history (3200 BCE – 625 BCE) -
||3.3 - Pre-Islamic statehood (625 BCE – 651 CE) -
||3.4 - Middle Ages (652–1501) -
||3.5 - Early modern era (1501–1921) -
||3.6 - Recent history (1921–present) -
||3.6.1 - Iranian Revolution -
||4 - Government and politics -
||5 - Foreign relations and military -
||6 - Economy -
||6.1 - Energy -
||7 - Demography -
||8 - Culture -
||8.1 - Language and literature -
||8.2 - Art and architecture -
||9 - Science and technology -
||10 - Sports -
||11 - See also -
||12 - References -
||13 - Further reading -
||Iran (word) and Name of Iran
||The term Iran (ایران) in modern Persian derives from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānā, first attested in Zoroastrianism's Avesta tradition.
- 26 ] - - Ariya- and Airiia- are also attested as an ethnic designator in Achaemenid inscriptions. The term Ērān , from Middle Persian Ērān (written as ʼyrʼn ) is found on the inscription that accompanies the investiture relief of Ardashir I at Naqsh-e Rustam.
- 27 ] - - In this inscription, the king's appellation in Middle Persian contains the term ērān (Pahlavi ʼryʼn ), while in the Parthian language inscription that accompanies it, the term aryān describes Iran. In Ardeshir's time, ērān retained this meaning, denoting the people rather than the state .
||Notwithstanding this inscriptional use of ērān to refer to the Iranian peoples, the use of ērān to refer to the geographical empire is also attested in the early Sassanid period. An inscription relating to Shapur I, Ardashir's son and immediate successor, includes regions which were not inhabited primarily by Iranians in Ērān regions, such as Armenia and the Caucasus."
- 28 ] - - In Kartir's inscriptions the high priest includes the same regions in his list of provinces of the antonymic Anērān .
- 28 ] - - Both ērān and aryān come from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānām , (Land) of the (Iranian) Aryas. The word and concept of Airyanem Vaejah is present in the name of the country Iran (Lit. Land of the Aryans) inasmuch as Iran (Ērān ) is the modern Persian form of the word Aryānā .
||Since the Sassanian era the country has been known to its own people as Iran;however, to the western world, the official name of Iran from the 6th century BCE until 1935 was Persia or similar foreign language translations (La Perse , Persien , Perzie , etc.).
- 10 ] - - In that year, Reza Shah asked the international community to call the country by the name "Iran". A few years later, some Persian scholars protested to the government that changing the name had separated the country from its past, so in 1949
- 10 ] - -
- 11 ] -
- Mohammad Reza Shah announced that both terms could officially be used interchangeably. Now both terms are common, but "Iran" is used mostly in the modern political context and "Persia" in a cultural and historical context. Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the official name of the country has been the "Islamic Republic of Iran."|
|Geography and climate
||Geography of Iran
||Agriculture in Iran and Wildlife of Iran
||Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Mazanderan.