General Information and Updated References Bahrain General Information and Updated References


Bahrain -
Calling code + 973
Internet domain name for the country (TLD) - .bh
Kingdom of Bahrain - مملكة البحرين
Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn
Flag  - Coat of Arms
(and ) - Manama
Map Latitude : 26°13′N - Longitude : 50°35′E - 26.217°N 50.583°E - 26.217;50.583 -
Official language(s) : Arabic
People : Bahraini
Government : Constitutional monarchy
King of Bahrain : Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifah
Queen : Sabika bint Ibrahim
Crown Prince : Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Prime Minister : Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah
Independence From Persia in 1783 - From UK on December 16, 1971
Population : 2008 estimate - 791,000 - Density : 1,189.5/km ( 3,126.5/sq mi)
GDP - Purchasing power parity PPP : 2009 estimate - Total : $28.124 billion - Per capita : $27,068
GDP (nominal) : 2009 estimate - Total : $20.214 billion - Per capita : $19,455
Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Time zone : - (UTC) +3
Bahrain , officially Kingdom of Bahrain - Arabic :مملكة البحرين - ‎, Mamlakat al-Ba - Bahrain is an archipelago of thirty-three islands, the largest Bahrain Island is 55 km (34 mi) long by 18 km (11 mi) wide.
Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa
Prime Minister
Khalifa Bin Salman Al Khalifa
National Assembly
Consultative Council
Council of Representatives
Political parties
Elections :
2006, 2010
Human rights
Women's political rights
Foreign relations
Other countries
Politics portal
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Politics of Bahrain
Bahraini parliamentary election, 2006 and Human rights in Bahrain
For further information, see Decree-Law establishing governorates - PDF (732 KB) - from the Bahrain official website.
Bahrain is split into five governorates. These governorates are:
Map - Governorates
Governorates of Bahrain.svg
1. Capital Governorate
2. Central Governorate
3. Muharraq Governorate
4. Northern Governorate
5. Southern Governorate
Economy of Bahrain
Sunset at the King Fahd Causeway.
In a region experiencing an oil boom, Bahrain has the fastest growing economy in the Arab world, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia found in January 2006. - 70 ] - - Bahrain also has the freest economy in the Middle East according to the 2006 Index of Economic Freedom published by the Heritage Foundation / Wall Street Journal , and is twenty-fifth free-est overall in the world. - 71 ] - -
In 2008, Bahrain was named the world's fastest growing financial center by the City of London's Global Financial Centres Index. - 72 ] - - - 73 ] - - Bahrain's banking and financial services sector, particularly Islamic banking, have benefited from the regional boom. - 74 ] - - In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP.
Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990 - 91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to multinational firms. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude oil. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. In 2004, Bahrain signed the US-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain barriers to trade between the two nations. -
Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. In 2008, the jobless figure was a 4%, - 75 ] - - but women are over represented at 85% of the total. - 76 ] - - Bahrain in 2007 became the first Arab country to institute unemployment benefits as part of a series of labour reforms instigated under Minister of Labour, Dr. Majeed Al Alawi. - 77 ] - -
Geography of Bahrain
Desert landscape in Bahrain.
Bahrain is a generally flat and arid archipelago, consisting of a low desert plain rising gently to a low central escarpment, in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia. The highest point is the 134 m (440 ft) Jabal ad Dukhan. Bahrain has a total area of 665 km (257 (sq mi), which is slightly larger than the Isle of Man, though it is smaller than the nearby King Fahd International Airport near Dammam, Saudi Arabia (780 km (301 (sq mi)).
As an archipelago of thirty-three islands, Bahrain does not share a land boundary with another country but does have a 161 km (100 mi) coastline and claims a further 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea and a 44 km (24 nmi) contiguous zone. Bahrain's largest islands are Bahrain Island, Muharraq Island, Umm an Nasan, and Sitrah. Bahrain has mild winters and very hot, humid summers. Bahrain's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish stocks. Arable land constitutes only 2.82% - of the total area.
Desert constitutes 92% of Bahrain, and periodic droughts and dust storms are the main natural hazards for Bahrainis. Environmental issues facing Bahrain include desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, distribution stations, and illegal land reclamation at places such as Tubli Bay. The agricultural and domestic sectors' over-utilization of the Dammam Aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies.

Climate charts

Average temperature.
Average rainfall in mm.
Average hours of sunshine.
Geography of Bahrain and Climate of Bahrain
Bahrain is an island located west of the mainland of Saudi Arabia. Jabal ad Dukhan is the highest point in Bahrain with hills up to 134 m (440 ft) above sea level. The Zagros Mountains in Iraq cause low level winds to be directed to the Bahrain Island. The dust bowls from Iraq and Saudi Arabia make fine dust particles easily transported by northwesterly winds which cause reduced visibility in the months of June and July.
The summer is very hot since the Persian Gulf waters provide low levels of moisture supply. Seas around Bahrain are very shallow, heat up quickly in the summer, and produce high humidity, especially in the summer nights. In those periods, summer temperatures may reach about 35 °C (95 °F). Rainfall in Bahrain is minimal and irregular. Most rainfalls occur in the winter season, recorded maximum of 71.8 mm (2.83 in). - 78 ] - -
Demographics of Bahrain
Ethnic, Cultural and Religious Groups of Bahrain
Religion in Bahrain religion - - percent -
Islam -
Christianity -
Other -
In 2008, Bahrain's population stood at 1.05 million, out of which more than 517,000 were non-nationals. - 79 ] - - Though majority of the population is ethnically Arab, a sizable number of people from South Asia live in the country. In 2008, approximately 290,000 Indian nationals lived in Bahrain, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country. - 80 ] - -
The official religion of Bahrain is Islam, which the majority of the population practices. However, due to an influx of immigrants and guest workers from non-Muslim countries, such as India, Philippines and Sri Lanka, - 81 ] - - the overall percentage of Muslims in the country has declined in recent years. According to the 2001 census, 81.2% of Bahrain's population was Muslim, 9% were Christian, and 9.8% practiced Hinduism and other religions. - There are no official figures for the proportion of Shia and Sunni among the Muslims of Bahrain. Unofficial sources, such as the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, estimate it to be approximately 33% Sunni and 66% Shia. - 82 ] - - The vast majority of muslims are shia, with other estimates at almost 80%. - 83 ] - - - 84 ] - -
A Financial Times article published on 31 May 1983 found that "Bahrain is a polyglot state, both religiously and racially. Leaving aside the temporary immigrants of the past ten years, there are at least eight or nine communities on the island ". The present communities may be classified as:
Community - Description
Afro-Arabs - Descendants of black African slaves from East Africa
Ajam - Ethnic Persians from Shia and Sunni faith
Baharna - Shia Arabs divided between those indigenous to the islands
Bahraini Jews - A small Jewish community;and a miscellaneous grouping
Banyan - Indians who traded with Bahra - settled before the age of oil - 85 ] - - (formerly known as the Hunood or Banyan , Arabic :البونيان - ‎
Tribals - Sunni Arab Bedouin tribes allied to the Al-Khalifa including the Utoob tribes, Dawasir, Al Nuaim, Al Mannai etc.
Howala - Descendants of Sunni Arabs who migrated to Persia and returned later on, although some of them are originally Persians - 86 ] - - - 87 ] - -
Najdis (also called Hadhar ) - Non-tribal urban Sunni Arabs from Najd in central Arabia. These are families whose ancestors were pearl divers, traders, etc. An example is the Al Gosaibi family.
Culture of Bahrain and Music of Bahrain
Bahrain is sometimes described as "Middle East lite" because it combines modern infrastructure with a Persian Gulf identity and, unlike other countries in the region, its prosperity is not solely a reflection of the size of its oil wealth, but is also related to the creation of an indigenous middle class. This unique socioeconomic development in the Persian Gulf has meant that Bahrain is generally more liberal than its neighbours. While Islam is the main religion, Bahrainis have been known for their tolerance, and churches, Hindu temples, Sikh Gurdwara and a Jewish synagogue can be found alongside mosques. The country is home to several communities with faced persecution elsewhere.
It is too early to say whether political liberalisation under King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa has augmented or undermined Bahrain's traditional pluralism. The new political space for Shia and Sunni Islamists has meant that they are now more able to pursue programmes that often seek to directly confront this pluralism, yet political reforms have encouraged an opposite trend for society to become more self critical with more willingness to examine previous social taboos. It is now common to find public seminars on once unheard of subjects such as marital problems and sex - 88 ] - - and child abuse. - 89 ] - -
Another facet of the new openness is Bahrain's status as the most prolific book publisher in the Arab world, with 132 books published in 2005 for a population of 700,000. In comparison, the average for the entire Arab world is seven books published per one million people in 2005, according to the United Nations Development Programme. - 90 ] - - Ali Bahar is the most famous singer in Bahrain. He performs his music with his Band Al-Ekhwa (The Brothers ).

Language and religion

Freedom of religion in Bahrain
Arabic is the official language of Bahrain though English is widely used. Bahrain's primary religion is Islam.

Formula One and other motorsports events

Bahrain has a Formula One race-track, hosting the first Gulf Air Grand Prix on 4 April 2004, the first for an Arab country. This was followed by the Bahrain Grand Prix in 2005. Bahrain has successfully hosted the opening Grand Prix of the 2006 season on 12 March. Both the above races were won by Fernando Alonso of Renault. The 2007 event took place on April 13, 14th and 15th - 91 ] - -
In 2006, Bahrain also hosted its inaugural Australian V8 Supercar event dubbed the "Desert 400 ". ] The V8s will return every November to the Sakhir circuit. The Bahrain International Circuit also features a full length drag strip, and the Bahrain Drag Racing Club has organised invitational events featuring some of Europe's top drag racing teams ] to try and raise the profile of the sport in the Middle East.


On 1 September 2006, Bahrain changed its weekend from being Thursdays and Fridays to Fridays and Saturdays, in order to have a day of the weekend shared with the rest of the world. Other non-regular holidays are listed below:
Date - English name - Local (Arabic) name - Description
1 January - New Year's Day - رأس السنة الميلادية - The Gregorian New Year's Day, celebrated by most parts of the world.
1 May - Labour Day - يوم العمال
16 December - National Day - اليوم الوطني - National Day, Accession Day for the late Amir Sh. Isa Bin Salman Al Khalifa
17 December - Accession Day - يوم الجلوس
1st Muharram - Islamic New Year - رأس السنة الهجرية - Islamic New Year (also known as:Hijri New Year ).
9th, 10th Muharram - Day of Ashura - عاشوراء - Commemorates the martyrdom of Imam Hussein.
12th Rabiul Awwal - Prophet Muhammad's birthday - المولد النبوي - Commemorates Prophet Muhammad's birthday, celebrated in most parts of the Muslim world.
1st, 2nd, 3rd Shawwal - Little Feast - عيد الفطر - Commemorates end of Ramadan.
9th Zulhijjah - Arafat Day - يوم عرفة
10th, 11th, 12th Zulhijjah - Feast of the Sacrifice - عيد الأضحى - Commemorates Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son. Also known as the Big Feast (celebrated from the 10th to 13th).
Military of Bahrain
Bahrain Royal Medical Services, Royal Bahraini Army, Royal Bahraini Air Force, and Royal Bahrain Naval Force
Royal Bahraini Navy RBNS Sabha.
The kingdom has a small but well equipped military called the Bahrain Defense Force (BDF). The BDF is primarily equipped with United States equipment, such as F16 Fighting Falcon, F5 Freedom Fighter, UH60 Blackhawk, M60A3 tanks, and the ex- USS Jack Williams , an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate renamed the RBNS Sabha . The Government of Bahrain has a cooperative agreement with the United States Military and has provided the United States a base in Juffair since the early 1990s. This is the home of the headquarters for Commander, United States Naval Forces Central Command (COMUSNAVCENT) / United States Fifth Fleet (COMFIFTHFLT), and about 1500 United States and coalition military personnel. - 92 ] - -

Education in Bahrain
Boy Scouts of Bahrain
Students at the University of Bahrain.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Qur'anic schools (Kuttab ) were the only form of education in Bahrain. They were traditional schools aimed at teaching children and youth the reading of the Qur'an. After World War I, Bahrain became open to western influences, and a demand for modern educational institutions appeared. 1919 marked the beginning of modern public school system in Bahrain when Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia School for boys was opened in Muharraq. In 1926, the Education Committee opened the second public school for boys in Manama, and in 1928 the first public school for girls was opened in Muharraq.
In 2004 King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa introduced a project that uses Information Communication Technology (ICT) to support K - 12 education in Bahrain. This project is named King Hamad Schools of Future . The objective of this project is to connect and link all schools within the kingdom with the internet. In addition to British intermediate schools, the island is served by the Bahrain School (BS). The BS is a United States Department of Defense school that provides a K-12 curriculum including International Baccalaureate offerings. There are also private schools that offer either the IB Diploma Programme or UK A-Levels .
In 2007, St. Christopher's School Bahrain became the first school in Bahrain to offer a choice of IB or A-Levels for students. Numerous international educational institutions and schools have established links to Bahrain. A few prominent institutions are DePaul University, Bentley College, Ernst and Young Training Institute, NYIT and Birla Institute of Technology International Centre (See also:List of universities in Bahrain). Schooling is paid for by the government. Primary and secondary attendance is high, although it is not compulsory.
Bahrain also encourages institutions of higher learning, drawing on expatriate talent and the increasing pool of Bahrain Nationals returning from abroad with advanced degrees. The University of Bahrain has been established for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the King Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences;operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health, trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and paramedics. The national action charter, passed in 2001, paved the way for the formation of private universities. The first few private universities were Ahlia University situated in Manama and University College of Bahrain, Saar. In 2005, The Royal University for Women (RUW) was established. RUW is the first private, purpose-built, international University in the Kingdom of Bahrain dedicated solely to educating women. The University of London External has appointed MCG as the regional representative office in Bahrain for distance learning programs. MCG is one of the oldest private institutes in the country. Institutes have also been opened which educate Asian students, such as the Pakistan Urdu School, Bahrain, the Indian School, Bahrain.

Tourism in Bahrain
A 123 m (404 ft) high fountain off the coast of Manama. The mechanism is contained in a barge, anchored to the seabed.
Bahrain is a tourist destination with over eight million tourists a year. Most of the visitors are from the surrounding Arab states but there is an increasing number of tourists from outside the region due to a growing awareness of the kingdom's heritage and its higher profile with regards to the Bahrain International F1 Circuit ]. The Lonely Planet describes Bahrain as "an excellent introduction to the Persian Gulf ", - 93 ] - - because of its authentic Arab heritage and reputation as liberal and modern.
The kingdom combines Arab culture, gulf glitz and the archaeological legacy of five thousand years of civilization. The island is home to castles including Qalat Al Bahrain which has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Bahrain National Museum has artifacts from the country's history dating back to the island's first human inhabitatants 9000 years ago.
International rankings
Organization - Survey - Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace - Global Peace Index - 94 ] - - 69 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme - Human Development Index - 39 out of 182
Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index - 46 out of 180
World Economic Forum - Global Competitiveness Report - 38 out of 133
MiddleEast blacky.svg - Middle East portal
Outline of Bahrain
Bahrain World Trade Center
List of towns and villages of Bahrain
List of tallest buildings and structures in Bahrain
Bahraini woman becomes UN General Assembly president. Zee News. June 8, 2006
Bahrain Weather". Bahrain Weather. -
Bahrain witnesses population explosion". 2008-02-27. -
Bahrain International Circuit". -
Bahrain information portal
Kingdom of Bahrain Government portal Bahrain map
Map Latitude : 26°01′39″N - Longitude : 50°33′00″E - 26.0275°N 50.55°E - 26.0275;50.55 - -

Phones and Dial Codes
Phones in Bahrain Search a mobile in the phone companies and stores. BH Phone Book and Yellow Pages. List by City, Name, Number, Company. Internet Services and WebSites. 973 Code for international phone calls, whatsapp and text messages. BHR 

Covid in Bahrain

Coronavirus covid-19 in Bahrain, Cases 428,123, Deaths 1,414, Rate (0.33%), Date 2022-02-08 04:21:15 - Map of Coronavirus in the World. Total 393,934,458 cases of COVID-19 and 5,722,382 deaths. Updated information by country. Source : national health authorities and World Health Organization (WHO). 2022-02-08 04:21:15


Symptoms of the coronavirus disease : fever, dry cough, difficulty breathing, headache, slight runny nose, shortness of breath. If you have these symptoms, seek medical care to check your condition. Circulatory system : decreased white blood cells. Kidneys : decreased function.
Coronavirus in Basic protective measures against the new coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak.
How to take care of your health and protect others ?
Wash your hands frequently and regularly with soap and water. Keep your hands clean with an alcohol-based hand rub. Washing your hands kills viruses that may be there.  -
Avoid touching eyes, nose, mouth and face. Because hands touch many surfaces and can get contaminated with viruses and transfer it to your eyes, nose or mouth. And the virus can enter your body and can make you sick.
Covering your mouth and nose with a tissue or your bent elbow, when you cough or sneeze, and dispose of the used tissue immediately.
Safe greetings and handshaking.
Maintain social distancing at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and anyone else who is coughing or sneezing. When people coughs or sneezes can spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth which may contain virus.
Good respiratory hygiene. Protect the people around you from viruses such as cold, flu and COVID-19.
Stay home if you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention only if required, to protect you and help prevent spread of viruses and other infections.
Avoid contact with others and visits to medical facilities.
Stay aware of the latest information with official sources from the national and local public health authority.
Avoid to travel to prevent possible spread of COVID-19 and other viruses.
Avoid spitting in public places.
Protect yourself and others from getting sick
Practice food safety.
Stay healthy with good nutrition.
There are some vaccines and medicines recommended to prevent or treat the covid.
Situation Dashboard. Official Report of Cases by Country. Information and Videos on Social Networks : Youtube Facebook Twitter Instagram Linkedin
How to protect yourself and others agaist Coronavirus ?
What is COVID ? Covid means Coronavirus Disease.
The first cases of this virus was detected win Wuhan, China, but in few months was found in most of the countries. Check the total of cases and deaths by country and state.
Medical supplies recommended to protect themselves and others. Used by health personal : Hand sanitizer, gloves, masks, gowns, goggles.
Map of Covid-19 Coronavirus pandemic - Source : WHO. World Health Organization. Technical Guidance and Global research. Alert. See updated information by country.
- Covid-19, Casos y Muertes, Medidas de Salud. Teléfonos de Información. Datos Actualizados.
Bahrain : Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Jidd Hafs, Sitrah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Madinat, Ar Rifa, Madinat Hamad, Al Muharraq, Al Asimah, Al Janubiyah, Ash Shamaliyah, Al Wusta
Elections in Bahrain - Electoral and Voters Information.
Bahrain Government
Institutions Bahrain. Online Services
Bahrain Maps
Map of Bahrain
Bahrain Find Phones
Mobile Phone in Bahrain - Phone Numbers. Telephone Guide
Bahrain - Find more information and details
Search Bahrain :
Find Phones in Bahrain. Mobile Phone Companies. Phone Numbers. Internet Guide.
How can I find people in Bahrain? Use the list of telephones services to search phone numbers in Bahrain. -
Where to search mobile phone numbers in Bahrain? - Use the list of mobile services to locate the phone operator and special dial codes of Bahrain.
Where to find the area codes for the cities in Bahrain? The directory includes a list of City Dial Codes for Bahrain. Use the Bahrain phone services to find more information for the cities in Bahrain.
Where to find white pages in Bahrain? Use the white pages section to find free information about people. Find phone numbers, address, names and other information very helpful to locate people.
Where can I search business in Bahrain? The yellow pages of Bahrain can be used to Locate for business and other professional services. Phone Numbers, Address and more. - List with telephone numbers to find phone information about people or business.
Phones Bahrain 2023
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